Have a go at practice verbal reasoning test questions for training contract applications on biology!

Biology is a subject area in the brand new innovative, independent, platform for practising online verbal reasoning assessments called ‘Legal Recruit‘.

Hope you enjoy these questions.

1          Every day, we are bombarded with scientific and medical claims that are not based on good evidence: in advertising material, product websites, advice columns, campaign statements, celebrity health fads and policy announcements. Even where there is some regulation, in advertising or trading standards, such claims keep reappearing.  “Sense About Science”, along with over 5,000 scientists, scientific bodies, research publishers and policy makers, don’t want people to continue getting away with making claims without supporting evidence. They want things to change, so that anyone making a claim expects to be challenged, and is made to stand by their words. The only way to do this is to get more people asking for evidence.

 

Q1 Campaign statements are never based on good evidence.

 

CANNOT SAY. ‘Campaign statements’ are given as examples of scientific and medical claims which are not based on good evidence.

 

Q2 “Sense About Science” wants people to continue getting away making claims without supporting evidence.

 

FALSE. The passage states the precise opposite.

 

2          We hear about bacteria for lots of different reasons, and it’s unusual for many of them to be ‘good’. Indeed, the last time most people probably remember seeing bacteria make headlines was the contamination of salad vegetables with a deadly Escherichia coli strain relatively recently. However, as any microbiologist will tell you, bacteria are an extremely diverse group of organisms, with equally diverse properties which make some of them indispensable for many aspects of our lives; including food production, digestion and water treatment. For example, Geobacter sulfurreducens is just one of many bacterial superheroes. In this case, its superpower is ‘bioremediation’; the use of its metabolism to remove pollutants from the environment.

 

Q3 There is a very narrow range of strains in the bacteria class.

 

FALSE. Bacteria are stated to be an extremely diverse group of organisms.

 

Q4 Bacteria are never used for water treatment.

 

FALSE. Bacteria are said to play an ‘indispensible’ role in many functions, including water treatment.

 

 

3          While some birds only migrate locally in response to extreme weather conditions, others undertake seasonal long-distance migration between land masses and sometimes hemispheres.  The most impressive avian migrator is, by far, the Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea). Weighing an average of 100g, with a average wingspan of 75 – 85 cm, the birds sometimes nest just once every three years, as so much of their 30 year life span is spent in flight. The bird has the longest seasonal movement than any other animal, and the birds move so consistently with the seasons that they only ever see long days; they experience more sunlight per year than any other creature.

 

Q5 80 cm is a reasonable estimate wingspan of the African tern.

 

CANNOT SAY. The information given only refers to the Artic tern.

 

Q6 It is rare for the Artic Tern to be exposed to sunlight, compared to other creatures.

 

FALSE. The passage states that the Artic Tern ‘experience more sunlight per year than any other creature’.

 

4          There’s actually 47 known species of ‘leafcutter ants’, endemic to South and Central America, which live in colonies of up to ten million individuals organised into a complex social structure. The leaf cutting ants don’t actually eat the leaves they harvest – this is part of an elaborate process of cultivating a mutualistic fungus, which in turn provides the ants with the nutrients on which they feed. Efficiency of fungal cultivation is dependent on roles played by distinct ‘castes’ of ants, based mostly on size. Large workers forage for leaves and defend the colony, while smaller workers farm the fungus and tend to the nest. There’s even a designated waste removal team.

 

Q7 There are currently over 50 species of ‘leafcutter ants’.

 

CANNOT SAY. The passage states that there are 47 ‘known species’ of ‘leafcutter ants’, but it is not known how many unknown species of ‘leafcutter ants’ there currently are.

 

Q8 Only the caste of ants determines the efficiency of fungal cultivation done by ants.

 

FALSE. The passage states that distinct ‘castes’ of ants determine the efficiency of fungal cultivation done by ants.

 

 

5          Obesity is a growing problem worldwide, but proper protein consumption can help keep it at bay. Researchers have found that, when subjects were fed a 10% protein diet, they consumed 12% more energy over four days than they did on a 15% protein diet. Moreover, 70% of the increased energy intake on the lower protein diet was attributed to snacking. When the protein content was further increased to 25%, however, the researchers observed no change in behaviour relative to the 15% protein diet. It had previously been suggested that protein content plays an important role in determining overall energy intake, and thus affects obesity, but until this study, experimental verification had been lacking.

 

Q9 Obesity is only a problem in the U.S.

 

FALSE. Obesity is said to be a ‘growing problem worldwide’.

 

Q10 Protein content plays an important role in determining overall energy intake.

 

CANNOT SAY. No definite conclusion can be drawn from this study. Despite the findings of this study, the statement could still be true.

 

 

6          The anti-obesity properties of resveratrol have been demonstrated for the first time in a primate. Researchers recently studied the compound, generated naturally by plants to ward off pathogens, which has received much interest as a dietary supplement for its supposed life-extending effects. A team of researchers from Paris have decided to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with resveratrol on the weight, metabolism and energy intake of six mouse lemurs. The physiological benefits of resveratrol are currently under intensive investigation, with recent work suggesting that it could be a good candidate for the development of obesity therapies. The team found that lemurs eating a diet supplemented with the compound decreased their energy intake by 13% and increased their resting metabolic rate by 29%.

 

Q11 Based on research in the rat, resveratrol could be a good candidate for the development of anti-obesity therapies.

 

CANNOT SAY. The research described used a sample of lemurs (primates).

 

Q12 In this study, lemurs eating a diet supplemented with the compound increased their energy intake by an average of 13%.

 

TRUE. This is a finding from this study.

 

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Examples of practice online verbal reasoning test questions

In the article below, none of the exemplars have been written by or in collaboration with SHL Direct. Candidates are advised to look at their learning materials carefully. This article is only provided as helpful educational guidance.

In some verbal reasoning test, you are usually provided with a passage of information and required to evaluate a set of statements by selecting one of the following possible answers:

 A – True (The statement follows logically from the information or opinions contained in the passage)

B – False (The statement is logically false from the information or opinions contained in the passage)

C – Cannot Say (Cannot determine whether the statement is true or false without further information)

 

In the example below, you might give your answer to each question by clicking on either A, B or C. You will be told whether your answer is correct or not.

 Example passage:

Over 60 years ago, evolutionary biologist Bernhard Rensch calculated that males are typically the larger sex in big-bodied species such as humans, whereas females outdo them in small-bodied species such as spiders. Now it turns out that many plants obey Rensch’s rule too. Most plants produce both male and female sex organs, but around 7 percent are dioecious, meaning individuals are purely male or female. Recent results provide that female stems also must be large enough to display the fruit and support the animals that spread the pollen or seeds. If metabolism, predators or climate promote the evolution of smaller plants, however, males can shrink because their gametes are smaller.

Examples of questions might be: 

1. Over 80 years ago, Bernard Rensch calculated that males are typically the larger sex in big-bodied species.

CANNOT SAY – the passage says that Bernard Rensch calculated this over 60 years ago, but it is not possible to say from the passage whether he calculated this over 80 years ago.

 2. Around 7% of plants are dioecious, but it is not necessary for female stems to be large enough to display the fruit.

FALSE – whilst the first part of the statement is true according to the passage, the second part of the statement is clearly false, making the entire statement false

Here are example questions with a business theme.

QUESTION

Business schools and venture capital firms have long organised entrepreneur-in-residence programs, tapping seasoned founders for a year or two to mentor students or evaluate potential investments. Now U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services are launching what it calls its own “Entrepreneurs in residence” initiative, to bring business leaders and academics into the agency to meet regularly with officials to improve the visa process. The goal is to “capture the full power of the laws that currently exist to attract talent to spur entrepreneurial growth, to maximize innovation – all for the benefit of our economy and the American worker“, according to agency director Alejandro Mayorkas. Specifics on the push Mayorkas announced today are still being hammered out. Names of the participants and mechanics on how the in-person meetings will work have not been announced yet, though the organiser expects to do so in the next week or so.

Venture capital firms have only recently been involved in organising entrepreneur-in-residence programs.

FALSE. The passage states that venture capital firms have ‘long organised’ such programs.

Names of  the participants and information about how the in-person meetings will work will be announced within the next week.

CANNOT SAY. The passage provides that it is expected that this information will be provided within the next week, but it is not definitely the case that the information will be announced within the next week.

QUESTION

The number of so-called contingent workers has not been measured since 2005, when the Bureau of Labour Statistics last calculated the population. And now that the bureau has requested funding to resume the headcount, the Freelancers Union advocacy group is calling for changes in the way these workers are labeled and how their contribution to the U.S. economy is being measured. In a new policy paper, the Freelancers Union argues that the government is “ignoring a crucial, and growing, segment of the economy that is transforming the U.S. workforce.” The BLS’s ‘contingent work supplement’ was discontinued six years ago due to lack of funding. That year, contingent workers, which the BLS defines as labourers who consider their jobs temporary, made up about 4 percent of total employment.

‘Contingent workers’ are workers for work for an organisation on a non-permanent basis.

CANNOT SAY. This is in fact a valid definition of ‘contingent workers’, but this definition is not provided in the passage.

The BLS’ ‘contingent work supplement’ was discontinued a month ago due to lack of funding.

FALSE. This supplement was discontinued six years ago.

QUESTION

Small business owners are suffering from an economy hurt by reduced consumer
 spending and stagnant growth, according to a new survey by the National Small
 Business Association, a Washington, D.C., trade group. More than one-third say they aren’t confident about the future of their business from a financial perspective. Eighty-eight percent anticipate a recession or flat economy in the next year, an increase from 78 percent six months ago. Forty-five percent expect no growth opportunities in the coming year, up from 40 percent in December. Given the ongoing economic difficulties the U.S. has faced the past three years, small business owners overwhelmingly cited economic uncertainty as the most significant challenge to the future growth and survival of their business, according to the report.

Small business owners are suffering from lack of bank loans.

CANNOT SAY. Consumer spending and stagnant growth are cited as causes of hurt for small business owners, but one cannot exclude the possibility of small business owners suffering from lack of bank loans.

Six months ago 10 percent anticipated a recession or flat economy in the next year.

FALSE. Six months ago 78 percent anticipated a recession or flat economy in the next year.

To access lots of free materials, including factsheets and videos on psychometric tests, please go to the ‘Legal Recruit’ website.

@Legal_Recruit is also on Twitter here.

To take a free online trial, look at the second half of this page.

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Legal Recruit has launched: a new resource for training contract applicants

LegalRecruit provides verbal reasoning and situational judgement practice assessments for the law students who are candidates for vacation schemes or training contracts in corporate law firms.

Useful links are given here:

Home page

Factsheets and videos about online verbal reasoning tests

Have a go at a free online verbal reasoning test (see bottom half of the page)

LegalRecruit is an unique website for busy UK law students to practice online verbal reasoning tests in similar format to the present SHL verbal reasoning tests which are routinely used by corporate firms for recruitment and selection purposes.LegalRecruit is a perfect way for students to learn in a safe, inexpensive, enjoyable environment, for what can be regarded as an important hurdle in training contract and vacation scheme applications.

Applicants are advised to consult the Graduate Recruitment teams of their chosen law firms, and to liaise with them carefully regarding the format of the tests, and how any reasonable adjustments can be implemented (e.g. on grounds of dyslexia, or visual impairment).

Voluntary membership gives you unlimited access to over 500 verbal reasoning and situational judgement questions. You’ll get full explanations to the questions in the form of reports which you can access any time. All scores are also given a normative-reference score, so that you can see where you would be in relation to a graduate-level population. Each test is individually compiled for you in a special way, but always so that you will receive questions from 15 different subject areas. We score the percentiles in “live time”, so that your score is always compared  to the reference population of the total number of people who have taken the Legal Recruit trial test at that particular time.

Legal Recruit is a privately-run entirely independent student venture that is not affiliated to any particular organisations or individuals. The use of this website is entirely at the choice of all users; we aim to provide replies to the email enquiries@legal-recruit.org within 48 hours. Please do email us with suggestions how to make this platform better.

 

 

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Improving the ‘Legal Recruit’ website for individuals with dyslexia

Website design is imperative for a website like mine if ‘Legal Recruit’ is to be optimal help to law students with reading problems or visual impairments. The website is accessible here. I’ll radically re-design some of the pages ahead of the official launch of ‘Legal Recruit’ in early November.

Shamefully, I was unaware of the good practice guidelines for website design to optimise websites for individuals with dyslexia. I had a very interesting conversation with the British Dyslexia Association helpline about how many students are not even recognised as dyslexic until they have sat their Finals at undergraduate level. This to some extent is being mitigated by Universities and University Colleges now performing a simple screening test on admission. The helpline immediately pointed me in the direction of these style guidelines. Above all, I am hugely grateful to @CreativeCrip whose experience and knowledge shone through in tweets as short as 140 characters. I would not have known about any of this, if it were not for Creative Crip.

Their guidance is as follows, and my reactions are also provided. A strength of the website is that it’s possible to alter the text size. A weakness of the website is that it’s not possible to alter the text style.

Website design must consider all the above factors together with the following points.
Research shows that readers access text at a 25% slower rate on a computer. This should be taken into account when putting information on the web. When a website is completed, check the site and information for accessibility by carrying out these simple checks.

  • Navigation should be easy. A site map is helpful. [We do not have a site map but a navigation bar]
  • Use graphics, images, and pictures to break up text, while bearing in mind that graphics and tables may take a long time to download. [The website currently fails to do this on some pages, but this can be easily remedied.]
  • Very large graphics make pages harder to read. [Graphics are scaled, but I will never use graphics bigger than 'medium' in future].
  • Offer alternate download pages in a text reader friendly style. [The LegalRecruit webpage allows different text sizes]
  • Where possible design web pages which can be downloaded and read off-line. [I will need to consult about this]
  • Moving text creates problems for people with visual difficulties. Text reading software is unable to read moving text. [There is a slideshow of moving images on the front page, but there is no moving text on the website].
  • Contents links should show which pages have been accessed. [The text has various hyperlinks.]
  • Most users prefer dark print on a pale background. Colour preferences vary. [The website mostly uses a clear sans serif font in lack on a white background.]
  • Some websites offer a choice of background colours. [I have decided not to use a range of different background colours.]
  • Encourage the use of hyperlinks at the end of sentences. [I was completely unaware of this, but I note this information.]
  • Avoid green and red/pink as these are difficult for colour-blind individuals. [The logo is dark red - for personal reasons. I am very mindful of this observation.]
  • Make sure that it is possible for users to set their own choice of font style and size, background and print colours. [I will need to discuss this.]
Here’s a typical screen from the website.
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Where did the ‘situational judgement test’ come from, and where is it going to?

 

There has been a small explosion in the research done into ‘situational judgement tests’ (SJT) for employment selection (Weekley and Ployhart, 2006). SJTs present applicants with work-related situations and possible responses to the situations. There are broadly two types of instructions (reviewed by McDaniel et al., 2007). Behavioural tendency instructions ask respondents to identify how they would likely behave in a given situation. Knowledge instructions ask respondents to evaluate the effectiveness of possible responses to a given situation. Tests assessing an individual’s judgement concerning work-related situations have had a long history in the psychological assessment literature (McDaniel et al., 2001). For example, during World War II, Army psychologists attempted to assess the judgement of soldiers (Northrup, 1989). These judgement tests consisted of scenarios with a number of alternative scenarios. Solutions rested on the person’s ability to draw on his common sense, experience, and general knowledge, rather than logical reasoning.

 

In an influential study by Chan and Schmitt (2002), data from 160 civil service employees were analysed, with a view to demonstrating the validity of the SJT in predicting overall job performance as well as three performance dimensions: task performance (core technical proficiency; problem analysis, written communication, oral communication), motivational contextual performance (job dedication; motivation to perform, motivation to learn, motivation to work hard), and interpersonal contextual performance (interpersonal facilitation; conflict resolution, negotiation, teamwork and co-operation). Chan and Schmitt (2002) also felt that situational judgement tests provided incremental validity over prediction from cognitive ability, personality traits, and job experience.

 

Previously, Huffcuttt and colleagues (2001) had attempted to elucidate the most suitable construct categories. Their constructs included mental capability, knowledge and skills, basic personality traits, applied social skills, interests and preferences, organizational fit, and physical attributes.Recently, Christian, Edwards and Bradley (2010) argue that many studies have failed, however, to report the constructs actually measured in SJTs. A construct-level focus in the situational judgement test literature is therefore lacking. Christian and colleagues (2001) found that situational judgement tests most often assess leadership and interpersonal skills and those situational judgement tests measuring teamwork skills and leadership skills have relatively high validities for overall performance.

 

There has been an increasing drive to standardising these tasks. For example, the LR SJT has questions in written format. There is inevitably a difference for oral questions, or SJTs in video format (it is claimed that video SJTs have more subtle nuances involving social cognition or emotional intelligence which can be picked upon). Also, the questions can potentially vary in scenario length (longer scenarios tend to have more detail), and how scenarios are profession-specific (for example, type of firm, law/medicine/business). Finally, the questions can vary in format. In the LR SJT, and for example in the 2010 and 2011 Clifford Chance SJT, you have to pick one best out of the options given. In some tests, rather, you may be required to rank your choices in order of preference.

 

References

 

Chan, D, Schmitt, N. (2002) Situational judgment and job performance. Human performance, 15(3), 233-254.

 

Christian, MS, Edwards, BD, Bradley, JC. Situational judgment tests: constructs assessed and a meta-analysis of their criterion-based constructs. (2010) Personnel Psychology 63: 83-117.

 

Huffcutt, AI, Conway, JM, ROTH, PL, Stone, NJ.. (2001) Identification and meta analytic assessment of psychological constructs measured in employment interviews. Journal of Applied Psychology 80: 897-913.

 

McDaniel, MA, Hartman, NS, Whetzel, DL, Lee Grubb III, W. (2007) Situational judgment tests, response instructions, and validity: a meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology 60, 63-91.

 

McDaniel, MA, Morgeson, FP, Finnegan, EB, Campio, MA, Braverman, EP. (2001) Use of situational judgment tests to predict job performance: a clarification of the literature. Journal of Applied Pyschology 86(4), 730-740.

 

Weekley, JA, Polyhart, RE. (2006) Situational judgment tests: Theory, management, and application. Mahwah, NK: Erlbaum.

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Situational judgement test practice for training contracts and vacation placement applications

These are the questions to test competences described in the LegalRecruit blog. This test is similar to other situational judgment tests, often used by recruiters to see whether you are suitable for the culture of their organisation. For each test, you will be presented with 12 scenarios. For each scenario, three options are given. Choose one of the options, corresponding to what you feel is the best course of action to take given your available choices. Try to answer the question honestly, not what you feel the recruiter might be looking for necessarily. No specific knowledge or training as a corporate lawyer is required to be able to answer the questions but you will need to consider the safety of themselves and others and use the information provided to decide how best to respond. General common sense would be of great value for this test. You will get no immediate response, however there will be within a few days a complete breakdown of the results of the 72 questions, and the answers you were supposed to give.

There are a huge number of questions, and preliminary results show that the results you have decided are pretty clear-cut. This is what the people who set these questions call ‘validation by an expert group’. Please do let me know if there are any particular questions which have caused undue confusion using the comments facility below. They will be remedied as required.

The six tests are:

Commitment to excellence

Proactive mindset

Leadership and attention-to-detail

Teamwork

Problem-solving skills

Communication and negotiation skills

Good recruitment works well, for both the candidate and the firm, but a lot can go wrong in the process. Ideally, recruitment should be exploring which candidate has the most potential to fit into the organizational structure and culture of that firm, but too often it ends up being a case of ‘damage limitation’. The utilisation of this approach is most dangerous for firms which aim to encourage innovation or entrepreneurship, as many firms in the City claim to be. If truth be told, they are often looking for reliable ‘fee earners’ instead. It is perfectly possible for you to ‘train’ to become good at these tests.

Competences

Law firms tend to have a very clear idea what they’re looking for. These are called “competences“. ‘Situational judgement tests’ look at competencies.

Outstanding problem-solving skills

Do you have the mental agility and intellectual rigour to analyse problems and apply this analysis to develop novel, unexpected solutions?

The problems you face can be large or small, simple or complex, and easy or difficult to solve. Regardless of the nature of the problems, a fundamental part of every trainee lawyer’s role is finding ways to solve them. So, being a confident problem solver will really important to your success a trainee lawyer.

Much of that confidence comes from having a good process to use when approaching a problem. There are various methodologies which you could use to improve your ‘problem solving’ ability: the ‘Mindtools’ website http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMC_00.htm. With a consistent method, you can solve problems quickly and effectively. Without one, your solutions may be ineffective, or you’ll get stuck and do nothing, with sometimes painful consequences.

There are four basic steps in problem solving:

1.            Defining the problem.

2.            Generating alternatives.

3.            Evaluating and selecting alternatives.

4.            Implementing solutions.

Steps 2 to 4 of this process are covered in depth in other areas of Mind Tools. For these, see our sections on Creativity for step 2 (generating alternatives); Decision Making for step 3 (evaluating and selecting alternatives); and Project Management for step 4 (implementing solutions).

Proactive mindset

Are you naturally inquisitive with an openness to new ideas and the initiative to turn them into practical results? Initiative is often misunderstood because it is simply not about meeting performance goals or targets; it’s often about going the extra mile. Initiative may be about identifying a need and championing a solution for the benefit of the law firm, without being asked to do so. Initiative involves a sense of responsibility for the company’s well-being and a few guiding principles. Initiative is about taking steps to make the law firm better, and not about wasting time tackling unimportant matters. To make the distinction, try determining the impact a certain action would make on your team’s performance, the company’s bottom-line or the company’s long-term vision.

Being proactive means thinking and acting ahead – basically, this means using foresight. It’s a great method for avoiding more work down the road but also can be extremely important for averting disasters, planning well for the future and for instituting systems at work, in study, and at home that make life easier for not just you, but others as well.

Consider whether your working style is more “active” or “passive”,

http://www.eatyourcareer.com/2010/08/how-be-proactive-at-work-step-system/

An excellent, friendly, article on showing initiative is here, http://uk.askmen.com/money/professional_100/137_professional_life.html.

This article also gives a very interesting perspective on questions you might ask yourself to develop a “proactive mindset”, http://www.wikihow.com/Be-Proactive

The difference between “reactive” and “proactive” language is indeed an interesting one: http://www.stevepavlina.com/blog/2004/11/be-proactive/.

Commitment to excellence

Do you hold yourself to the highest standards of performance even when the going is tough? And are you passionate about continuously raising and refining your own performance levels? Do you persevere when pursuing a project, but remain flexible if there are obstacles in your way?

A ‘commitment to excellence’ is broadly defined to mean that an employee ‘adopts a conscientious and proactive approach to work to achieve and maintain excellent standards’. Every member a corporate law firm must strive to achieve and maintain the highest professional and personal standards, thereby enhancing both the competence and cohesion of that law firm.

It is interesting to have a look at various law firms you know to see how they present their commitment to excellence. There are in fact various ways in which law firms can commit to excellence, and you should search for the term ‘shared values’ on the corporate website. It’s interesting in fact how law firms can vary markedly even in their taglines: http://www.lawmarketing.com/pages/articles.asp?Action=Article&ArticleCategoryID=6&ArticleID=173.

Many law firms believe that community and social responsibility (corporate social responsibility) involves an understanding of the impact our business has on the environment, the welfare of individuals, the community and the sustainability of the world’s resources. This means that running a business goes beyond making profits and acquiring wealth, and law firms increasingly acknowledge our obligation to consider the wider interests of our clients, employees and the community in which we function. In economic terms, responsible approach in these areas can lead to greater efficiencies, lower costs and an improved reputation as a responsible service provider and employer.

The SRA Handbook sets out the standards and requirements we expect our regulated community to achieve and observe, for the benefit of the clients they serve and in the public interest.

The Legal Services Board (LSB) approved the Handbook on 17 June 2011. The key implementation date was 6 October 2011.

The SRA’s approach to regulation is outcomes-focused and risk-based, so that clients receive services in a way that best suits their needs. More about outcomes-focused regulation

Read Outcomes-focused regulation at a glance online

Overview of the Handbook

Table comparing old and new approaches

It is really important that you make every effort to stay in good physical or mental health for our own health and well-being and also as a personal responsibility towards people you work for/with. It is our responsibility to develop our own and others’ professional understanding of how air corporate law is most effectively applied and how it can remain relevant and capable in contemporary environments.

Strong communication skills

Can you communicate fluently, clearly and concisely? Persuade and negotiate with others in both group and individual situations? Make complex information understandable to clients? What will you do if you find there are problems with communication?

A really helpful website is at http://law.gsu.edu/Communication/  Entitled “Effective Lawyer Client Communication: 
An International Project to Move from Research to Reform”, the authors describe that the goal of their project is improve lawyer-client communication by combining what has been learned so far within legal education with empirical social science research. We have selected the initial client interview as the focus for the pilot project. The initial interview is, of course, the one unit of service that is constant across all forms of legal service delivery. It is also one of the most critical units of service. The initial interview: (1) shapes client perception of the lawyer; (2) defines the service to be provided in terms of both problem and goal; and (3) is an important opportunity for client education, e.g. confidentiality, substantive legal rights, what the client can do for himself or herself, and the need to preserve evidence.

Professor Clark Cunningham is the Director of an international collaborative project, based at Georgia State University, on lawyer-client communication: Effective Lawyer Client Communication (ELCC): An International Project to Move from Research to Reform, http://tinyurl.com/64csb2g.

The goal of this project is improving lawyer-client communication by combining what has been learned so far within legal education with empirical social science research. The project has the potential to change the way client communication is taught around the world.

Prof Cunningham refers to William Felstiner, former Director of the American Bar Association:

“He gathers from these sources the conclusion that lawyers frequently fail to treat clients with respect, do not consider the nature of interpersonal relations with clients to be an important aspect of law practice, are motivated more by financial returns than by professional values, are inaccessible and unresponsive, are poor communicators, do not know how to deal with clients effectively, are indifferent to clients’ feelings, and are indifferent to the pace of clients’ legal affairs.”

Irene Leonard has produced ‘7 steps’ for effective communication:

http://www.coachingforchange.com/communication-skills-for-lawyers.html

She comments that:

“The practice of law is highly dependent on good communication skills, especially persuasive verbal skills. Mastering these seven keys will allow you to connect with your clients in a more meaningful way and solve problems more effectively. You will have more successful presentations and depositions. Even interactions with your staff will be improved.”

 

Teamwork

Do you have the confidence to collaborate, seek feedback, share ideas and build credibility through your interaction other people?

A good overview of the relevance of teamwork to legal reruitment, and beyond, is for legal recruitment purposes Is given on the page: http://www.wikijob.co.uk/wiki/teamwork. However, a much useful article serving as an introduction to teamwork is http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadtem.html, which features a discussion of the ‘elements of a good team’. Candidates with good teamwork skills are normally able to see the bigger picture and grasp the concept that employers value the outcome achieved by a group, more than that achieved by any one person.

You might like to look into certain areas such as:

1. Conflict resolution

http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_81.htm

2. Maximising your contribution (see in particular ‘Belbin’s team roles)

http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMM_53.htm

3. Using ‘small wins’ to motivate other members of your team

http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/progress-theory.htm

4. Managing in India

http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMM_18.htm

There is a well-known model of working in groups, which you may be interested in:

http://www.chimaeraconsulting.com/tuckman.htm

Often quoted, Bruce Tuckman’s classic description of the stages of group development is easy to understand and remember, but it helps to go back and look at what’s behind each stage. Tuckman is a respected educational psychologist who first described the (then) four stages of group development in 1965, soon after leaving Princeton.  Looking at the behaviour of small groups in a variety of environments, he recognised the distinct phases they progress through, and suggested they need to experience all four stages before they achieve maximum effectiveness.

The importance of “teamwork” to law firms is described in a very elegant article by Bob Bookman entitled “Teamwork: Outlawing the Lone Ranger Partner”,

http://www.bobbookman.com/articles/article_3.htm

Teamwork is a good mechanism for sharing the workload. Luckily, for the corporate world, most humans gravitate towards team work; they prefer sharing the workload (http://www.helium.com/items/344790-the-importance-of-teamwork-in-the-company ). Humans have discovered, since the earliest of days that many hands make for a much lighter load.  An excellent analysis of why teamwork is otherwise important is given in this article, http://www.the-happy-manager.com/why-is-teamwork-important.html.

Teamwork also constitute an important part of competence interviews later in the assessment process:

http://humanresources.about.com/od/involvementteams/a/team_questions.htm

Attention-to-detail and leadership

Can you manage your own workload, stay organised under pressure, pay attention to detail and be relied on to complete each task accurately and completely?

Corporate law firms need trainees who can handle both the small and large parts of a task. Such individuals won’t overlook what needs to be done and can be depended on to do each task accurately and completely.

Proofreading is an example of where attention-to-detail is critical – this is especially important whether you are a medical writer, for example, or a legal draftsman. It’s well worth looking at “top tips” for how you can be a good proofreader, and bear in mind that legal recruiters will go through your application form “with a fine toothcomb” to look for any mistakes. A website providing useful tips is:

http://www.dailywritingtips.com/8-proofreading-tips-and-techniques/

The following website page from the University of North Caroline offers an useful checklist about what might be included in ‘attention-to-detail’:

http://www.uncg.edu/hrs/detail.htm

For example, the trainee solicitor:

  • Keeps a project checklist, covering all the details that might be overlooked.
  • Checks, and rechecks work for mistakes before sending out.
  • Follows procedures exactly to make sure all parts of a job are completed.
  • Compares finished work to what is expected.
  • Performs routine or repetitious tasks with care and attention.
  • Reviews work carefully for completeness and accuracy.
  • Makes sure equipment is working before it is needed in a project.

Legal recruiters are often looking for ‘future leaders’, although they do not give a coherent description of leadership qualities they are looking for. Here are some useful basic web resources which serve as an introduction on leadership:

http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadcon.html

Leadership styles

http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadstl.html

Visioning

http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/visions.html

Examples of questions for the ‘situational judgement test’

88 individuals took the LegalAware SJT test, and here is a breakdown of the results. This is described in a blogpost on the LegalAware blogpost, http://legal-aware.org/2011/09/legalaware-the-situational-judgment-test-a-test-used-by-clifford-chance-and-eversheds/.

EQ1 You are a trainee. You find that a document summarising the background of a client, which your Managing Associate has prepared and circulated to your group, contains some factual errors about the client. You know the client’s history well as you once did a research project on them at University. You are at a meeting, with your Managing Associate and Partner present. Which of the following courses of action do you take?

Half-way through the group meeting present your own Powerpoint presentation outlining the Managing Associate’s mistakes. (0%)

Have a private word with the Managing Associate early on in the meeting, to ask what he would advise.  (91%)

Immediately seek the attention of the Partner to express your concerns. (9%)

EQ2  It is your first day on a team of a trainees consisting of four people (including yourself). Your Managing Associate has asked your group of trainees to find the relevant cases relating to a transaction you are about to start. He has previously given you a list of the cases. This is an area which you studied in a module at University, and you feel you know it well. What do you decide to do regarding finding the cases?

Assemble your own list of cases, and obtain case judgments for all of them, and photocopy them. (7%)

Introduce yourself to the other trainees, and discuss with them how they wish to proceed in finding the cases. (90%)

Find your own list of cases, and ask the other trainees to find them for you.  (2%)

EQ3 Your friend, who has always been your competitor at law school, is about to give a Powerpoint presentation on share acquisitions in Korea as a trainee, and you know that the Managing Associate is looking forward to this presentation with interest. However, there appears to be a mechanical fault with accessing Broadband, and the only copy of the file is an email which she sent to you to check yesterday. You saved it on your memory stick, which you happen to have brought to the meeting. You know the memory stick is compatible with the computer she is using for her presentation. How do you decide to proceed?

Pretend you have forgotten the memory stick, and you cannot help. (0%)

Offer to upload the presentation on her computer using the memory stick, but to offer also to download the file from the internet if that fails from a neighbouring computer. (94%)

Ask the Managing Associate for help, to demonstrate that you enjoy teamwork. (6%)

EQ4 You have about sixty documents relating to a financial transaction which you have inherited this morning. It is your first morning in a new seat with five new trainees, and one of your two Managing Associates (the one who was due to meet you) is late for work. What do you first?

Introduce yourself to the other members of your team. (86%)

Phone the other Managing Associate, and insist on him or her being there to lead your business meeting this morning. (1%)

Arrange the documents into five piles of twelve documents, and ask each member of the team to provide details about them for use in an Excel spreadsheet. (13%)

EQ5 You are a trainee, nearly concluding a very important transaction. Your client has asked you to fax to him a copy of a document, but the only person who has a copy of it is your (only) Managing Associate, but he is on holiday in Tenerife and is completely unavailable. All the other members of the team are currently listed as ‘available’ in your head office. Which of the following people would you like to contact first for help?

Another trainee (16%)

An associate (67%)

A partner (17%)

EQ6 You have written a report on private equity in Japan, and you have ten minutes before the deadline, to send it to your supervisor. You are aware that there may be some cases with incorrect citations referenced. Which of the following do you do?

Check thoroughly for spelling and grammar errors. (5%)

Identify urgently the references in an accurate way, and amend your report. (78%)

Ask for an extension (a few hours in addition) so that you can vastly improve your report potentially. (17%)

EQ7 You are close to the final weeks of your first seat in technology in London. Your team is considering proposing a new office in an international jurisdiction to further your commercial interests abroad. The other trainees have asked you to present what you think is the most important aspect of that proposed office, as collectively your Supervisor has asked you to assemble a report on the subject by the end of the week. Which of the following factors do you think might be most important for opening this new office, which you choose to include in your report?

The quality of legal services to be offered by your firm in that particular office. (58%)

The price of legal services to be offered by your firm in that particular office. (4%)

The range of legal services to be offered by your firm in that particular office. (38%)

EQ8 You are a trainee in the corporate finance seat in London where all team members are extremely busy. You have recently been liaising with ten particular clients on an almost daily basis in France. Your Supervisor has asked you to canvass for opinions of various clients in different countries towards the recent fall in stock prices in the European markets. You feel you do not have time to do this task on your own in time. Which of the options do you consider first?

Seek help from other trainees to help you to write the report, and ask other trainees which clients should be contacted. (24%)

Seek help from other trainees to help you to write the report, and contact some or all of the ten clients to ask them for their opinions. (47%)

Research the information which could be obtained from the clients and punctually write a report. (28%)

EQ9 You passed your advanced elective in intellectual property in your Legal Practice Course. You are in a small team of five trainees, and you are all working on an urgent case the preparation of which must be concluded by the close-of-play tomorrow night. Your Managing Associate has asked you to consider where a series of claims in a patent diverges between your client and the party making a claim against your client. She is experienced in intellectual property. You have not looked at the case yet, but already three people think the claims diverge at step 12, but one person thinks the claims diverge at 23. Where the claims diverge is important for your case. Which of the following options do you pursue first?

Analyse the case first to make up your mind about where you think the claims diverge, and discuss further with your team. (93%)

Ask all other members of the team to compile (and email to you) a written report to send to your Managing Associate so that she can decide. (4%)

Ask your Managing Associate to meet up with you urgently to resolve the dispute. (3%)

EQ10 You are a trainee in a law firm, and your best friend is working in a rival firm. You get on well with your Managing Associate, as your firm is reputed to be ‘small but very friendly’. She is very good at keeping secrets, according to your colleagues. Your friend is acting in the team for the opposing client, and has told you informally that it is widely believed in fact that the share acquisition does not fit in with their corporate strategy, despite what is reported in the Financial Times. She has asked you not to tell anyone, but the information could make a critical difference to the success of the transaction of your client. What do you do?

Decide to keep this information confidential, but consider the information as part of your preparatory research, as available from public sources. (58%)

Tell your Managing Associate immediately in private, but request politely that she does not tell anyone. (11%)

Ignore the information, as it could be totally untrustworthy anyway. (31%)

  


Disability

It’s really important to realise that if you have a reading disability or visual impairment, the test administrators, designers and corporate law firm are obliged to enter into both the letter and spirit of helping you. Once you have all the ‘reasonable adjustments’ successfully implemented (if and only if, rather), it is perfectly possible for you to ‘train’ to become good at these tests.

Reading difficulty (dyslexia)

 

Dyslexia can be a legally recognised disability depending on its severity. Therefore, when applicants or candidates are being assessed, the qualified test user should have due regard to the employment provisions of the Disability Discrimination Act (1995)or Equality Act (2010); this makes it unlawful for an employer to treat a disabled person less favourably than a non-disabled person without good reason.

Discrimination is outlawed in a wide range of employment activities including selection, promotion and training. Employers have a duty to make “reasonable adjustments” to selection processes and working conditions so that disabled persons are not placed at a substantial disadvantage

The definition of the British Dyslexia Association mentions the impact dyslexia can have on other functions as well as literacy.

The BDA defines dyslexia as:

 

A combination of abilities and difficulties which affect the learning process in one or more of reading, spelling and writing. Accompanying weaknesses may be identified in areas of speed processing, short-term memory, sequencing, auditory and/or visual perception, spoken language and motor skills. It is particularly related to mastering and using written language, which may include alphabetic, numeric and musical notation.

 

In selection for a training contract, an individual with dyslexia is likely to encounter difficulty with tests of verbal reasoning, spelling and functional literacy. The law requires that accommodations are made for disabled people including those with dyslexia to ensure that selection procedures do not disadvantage them. The employer is concerned with eliciting accurate information on abilities to use in making decisions.

The standardised nature of these tests is one of the main contributors to their effectiveness and objectivity. Arbitrary modifications to the test or administration procedure are likely to invalidate the results and render standard norm groups and score interpretations meaningless.

A common modification for individuals with dyslexia is to adjust the timing of the test. However, the amount of extra time required will depend on the way the dyslexia manifests itself, its severity, the test(s) being used and their relationship to the job requirements. Only a relevant professional can determine what is appropriate.

Whether adjustments have been made to standard test procedures or not, careful administration can help ensure that individuals with dyslexia have a fair opportunity to demonstrate their skills.

As with many disabilities, stress may exacerbate the impact of dyslexia. Therefore, a calm and understanding approach on the part of the administrator is important.

People with dyslexia may have difficulty with test instructions. This can be due to reading difficulties, or to a difficulty with short term memory and/or sequencing which is common with dyslexia.

 


 

Useful contacts

 

The British Dyslexia Association

Contact details here

National Helpline
For all dyslexia related enquiries.

Tel: 0845 251 9002

Email: helpline@bdadyslexia.org.uk

Our Helpline, staffed by volunteers, is open from 10:00a.m. until 4:00p.m. Monday to Friday, and open late on Tuesday and Wednesday from 5:00 – 7:00p.m.

Specialist Teacher and Accreditation Enquiries

Tel: 0845 251 9003
Email: accreditation@bdadyslexia.org.uk

Office and Administrative Enquiries

Tel: 0845 251 9003

Fax: 0845 251 9005.

 

Postal Address:
Unit 8 Bracknell Beeches, Old Bracknell Lane, Bracknell, RG12 7BW.

 

Email

 

Equality and Human Rights Commission

Our Helpline

England: 0845 604 6610
Textphone: 0845 604 6620
Email: englandhelpline@equalityhumanrights.com

Scotland: 0845 604 5510 
Textphone: 0845 604 5520
Email: scotlandhelpline@equalityhumanrights.com

Wales: 0845 604 8810
Textphone: 0845 604 8820
Email: waleshelpline@equalityhumanrights.com


 

Visual impairments and the law

A person who is registered or certified blind or partially sighted is automatically regarded as disabled under the Disability Discrimination Act (1995). However, even without registration, it is likely that a person with significantly limited vision which is not easily corrected using glasses or contact lenses will be considered disabled under the provisions of the Act.

The DDA makes it unlawful for an employer to treat a disabled person less favourably than a non-disabled person and those who provide services must make them accessible to clients with disabilities. When tests are being used in connection with employment (e.g. in making selection decisions) employers have a duty to make reasonable adjustments so that disabled persons are not placed at a substantial disadvantage.

Disabled individuals have the right to expect the same quality of service, including accuracy of diagnostics and assessment as other users of the service.

About visual impairments

 

Visual impairment covers a wide range of conditions.

Even a person who is registered blind may have some residual vision, e.g. the ability to discern light from dark or even quite good acuity within a severely limited field of vision.

Partial sight also covers many different types of conditions. These can range from very blurred vision to loss of some areas of the field of vision. For some people the act of focusing can be difficult, this can mean that reading difficult, as it is necessary to constantly refocus on the next portion of text.

A visual impairment may occur alone or in combination with other conditions.

Some people are born with visual impairments or have lived with the disability for a long time and have been taught or developed their own strategies for coping with both the practical difficulties of living and dealing with information usually presented in text form. For those with more residual vision, texts are typically accessed using large print and/or various magnification and lighting aids. Aids can include powerful spectacle lenses, free-standing magnifiers placed on top of a text, often with an integral light source.

Impact on testing

Any task where materials are presented visually, whether on paper, computer screen or as objects to be manipulated, will cause difficulty for a visually impaired person. This will include the vast majority of psychometric tests.

In order to assess a person with a visual disability, it is likely to be necessary to

  • make adjustments to standardised test administration procedures, use alternate
  • forms of materials, or both. However, such changes to a test cannot be made without affecting its reliability and validity.

The standardised nature of psychometric tests is one of the main contributors to their effectiveness and objectivity, and arbitrary modifications to the test or administration procedure are likely to invalidate the results and render standard norm groups and score interpretations meaningless. Some test takers may want to bring along some special equipment or ask for specific lighting conditions.

 

Practical advice during the testing session

Whether adjustments have been made to standard test procedures or not, careful administration can help ensure that the test results for someone with a visual impairment remain valid.

  • A calm and understanding approach on the part of the administrator is important.
  • If test administration times are greatly extended consider whether breaks are needed to prevent you / the candidate from becoming overtired.
  • Make a note any adjustments made, or any other non-standard occurrences.
  • If further advice is required in interpreting the results, make sure you consultant the recruiter from your corporate law firm, who may wish to contact the test publisher or consult with a Chartered Psychologist with expertise in visual impairment.

In fact, as part of your preparation for doing these tests, you might find it fun to get used to reading stories of varied cultural material – test yourself at seeing how many correct inferences you can make from the subject matter given! The advantage of such material is that they are all written with high-quality, and peer-reviewed/edited for spelling, grammar, and general style.

Good luck!

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Situational judgement test: Leadership and attention-to-detail

Can you manage your own workload, stay organised under pressure, pay attention to detail and be relied on to complete each task accurately and completely?

Corporate law firms need trainees who can handle both the small and large parts of a task. Such individuals won’t overlook what needs to be done and can be depended on to do each task accurately and completely.

Proofreading is an example of where attention-to-detail is critical – this is especially important whether you are a medical writer, for example, or a legal draftsman. It’s well worth looking at “top tips” for how you can be a good proofreader, and bear in mind that legal recruiters will go through your application form “with a fine toothcomb” to look for any mistakes. A website providing useful tips is:

http://www.dailywritingtips.com/8-proofreading-tips-and-techniques/

 

The following website page from the University of North Caroline offers an useful checklist about what might be included in ‘attention-to-detail’:

http://www.uncg.edu/hrs/detail.htm

For example, the trainee solicitor:

  • Keeps a project checklist, covering all the details that might be overlooked.
  • Checks, and rechecks work for mistakes before sending out.
  • Follows procedures exactly to make sure all parts of a job are completed.
  • Compares finished work to what is expected.
  • Performs routine or repetitious tasks with care and attention.
  • Reviews work carefully for completeness and accuracy.
  • Makes sure equipment is working before it is needed in a project.

Legal recruiters are often looking for ‘future leaders’, although they do not give a coherent description of leadership qualities they are looking for. Here are some useful basic web resources which serve as an introduction on leadership:

http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadcon.html

Leadership styles

http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadstl.html

Visioning

http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/visions.html

 

To take the LegalRecruit Situational Judgement Test on ‘Leadership and attention-to-detail’, please click here.

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Situational judgement test: Teamwork

Do you have the confidence to collaborate, seek feedback, share ideas and build credibility through your interaction other people?

An excellent overview of the relevance of teamwork to legal reruitment, and beyod, is given on the page: http://www.wikijob.co.uk/wiki/teamwork. Candidates with good teamwork skills are able to see the bigger picture and grasp the concept that employers value the outcome achieved by a group, more than that achieved by any one person.

You might like to look into certain areas such as:

1. Conflict resolution

http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_81.htm

 

2. Maximising your contribution (see in particular ‘Belbin’s team roles)

http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMM_53.htm

3. Using ‘small wins’ to motivate other members of your team

http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/progress-theory.htm

4. Managing in India

http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMM_18.htm

There is a well-known model of working in groups, which you may be interested in:

http://www.chimaeraconsulting.com/tuckman.htm

Often quoted, Bruce Tuckman’s classic description of the stages of group development is easy to understand and remember, but it helps to go back and look at what’s behind each stage. Tuckman is a respected educational psychologist who first described the (then) four stages of group development in 1965, soon after leaving Princeton.  Looking at the behaviour of small groups in a variety of environments, he recognised the distinct phases they progress through, and suggested they need to experience all four stages before they achieve maximum effectiveness.

The importance of “teamwork” to law firms is described in a very elegant article by Bob Bookman entitled “Teamwork: Outlawing the Lone Ranger Partner”,

http://www.bobbookman.com/articles/article_3.htm

Teamwork is a good mechanism for sharing the workload. Luckily, for the corporate world, most humans gravitate towards team work; they prefer sharing the workload (http://www.helium.com/items/344790-the-importance-of-teamwork-in-the-company ). Humans have discovered, since the earliest of days that many hands make for a much lighter load.  An excellent analysis of why teamwork is otherwise important is given in this article, http://www.the-happy-manager.com/why-is-teamwork-important.html.

Teamwork also constitute an important part of competence interviews later in the assessment process:

http://humanresources.about.com/od/involvementteams/a/team_questions.htm

 

To take the LegalRecruit Situational Judgement Test on teamwork, please click here.

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Situational judgement test for training contract applications: communication and negotiation

Can you communicate fluently, clearly and concisely? Persuade and negotiate with others in both group and individual situations? Make complex information understandable to clients? What will you do if you find there are problems with communication?

A really helpful website is at http://law.gsu.edu/Communication/  Entitled “Effective Lawyer Client Communication: 
An International Project to Move from Research to Reform”, the authors describe that the goal of their project is improve lawyer-client communication by combining what has been learned so far within legal education with empirical social science research. We have selected the initial client interview as the focus for the pilot project. The initial interview is, of course, the one unit of service that is constant across all forms of legal service delivery. It is also one of the most critical units of service. The initial interview: (1) shapes client perception of the lawyer; (2) defines the service to be provided in terms of both problem and goal; and (3) is an important opportunity for client education, e.g. confidentiality, substantive legal rights, what the client can do for himself or herself, and the need to preserve evidence.

Professor Clark Cunningham is the Director of an international collaborative project, based at Georgia State University, on lawyer-client communication: Effective Lawyer Client Communication (ELCC): An International Project to Move from Research to Reform, http://tinyurl.com/64csb2g.

The goal of this project is improving lawyer-client communication by combining what has been learned so far within legal education with empirical social science research. The project has the potential to change the way client communication is taught around the world.

Prof Cunningham refers to William Felstiner, former Director of the American Bar Association:

“He gathers from these sources the conclusion that lawyers frequently fail to treat clients with respect, do not consider the nature of interpersonal relations with clients to be an important aspect of law practice, are motivated more by financial returns than by professional values, are inaccessible and unresponsive, are poor communicators, do not know how to deal with clients effectively, are indifferent to clients’ feelings, and are indifferent to the pace of clients’ legal affairs.”

Irene Leonard has produced “‘7 steps’ for effective communication”:

http://www.coachingforchange.com/communication-skills-for-lawyers.html

She comments that:

“The practice of law is highly dependent on good communication skills, especially persuasive verbal skills. Mastering these seven keys will allow you to connect with your clients in a more meaningful way and solve problems more effectively. You will have more successful presentations and depositions. Even interactions with your staff will be improved.”

To take the LegalRecruit situational judgement test on communication and negotiation skills, please go to this link.

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Situational judgement test: The proactive mindset

The next batch of questions concern the ‘proactive mindset’.

Are you naturally inquisitive with an openness to new ideas and the initiative to turn them into practical results? Initiative is often misunderstood because it is simply not about meeting performance goals or targets; it’s often about going the extra mile. Initiative may be about identifying a need and championing a solution for the benefit of the law firm, without being asked to do so. Initiative involves a sense of responsibility for the company’s well-being and a few guiding principles. Initiative is about taking steps to make the law firm better, and not about wasting time tackling unimportant matters. To make the distinction, try determining the impact a certain action would make on your team’s performance, the company’s bottom-line or the company’s long-term vision.

Being proactive means thinking and acting ahead – basically, this means using foresight. It’s a great method for avoiding more work down the road but also can be extremely important for averting disasters, planning well for the future and for instituting systems at work, in study, and at home that make life easier for not just you, but others as well.

Consider whether your working style is more “active” or “passive”,

http://www.eatyourcareer.com/2010/08/how-be-proactive-at-work-step-system/

An excellent, friendly, article on showing initiative is here, http://uk.askmen.com/money/professional_100/137_professional_life.html.

This article also gives a very interesting perspective on questions you might ask yourself to develop a “proactive mindset”, http://www.wikihow.com/Be-Proactive

The difference between “reactive” and “proactive” language is indeed an interesting one: http://www.stevepavlina.com/blog/2004/11/be-proactive/.

To take the LegalRecruit Situational Judgement Test on “the proactive mindset”, please go to the following link.

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